Create an enterprise credit system
"Business is not honest and prosperous, and industry lacks trust and difficulties." The necessity and urgency of the construction of a social credit system have become increasingly prominent with the deepening of China's market economic reform. In this regard, we should explore the idea of establishing a corporate credit reporting system in China through an analysis of the development characteristics of the Japanese corporate credit reporting system.
1. The characteristics of the development of the Japanese enterprise credit reporting system
(1) Lubricants that are not recognized as indispensable for economic activities. The earliest corporate credit information company in Japan was the Commercial Credit Union, established in 1892. After more than 100 years of development, the Japanese credit reporting market has grown to a considerable scale, and credit reporting plays an important regulatory role in maintaining the normal operation of the national economy. The survey report of the credit reporting company has become an important measurement indicator for companies to develop new customers and provide credit lines. It is an important project for the relevant government departments to review the qualifications of participating government procurement companies.
(2) Credit-received enterprises range from negative attitudes to understanding and cooperation. Enterprises are generally vigilant, repulsive, and refusal to early credit investigations. Among them, there are many behaviors such as refusing investigators, insulting and insulting, etc., which shows the overall sense of distrust in society.
Today, companies have generally recognized their role in economic life as a game rule for participating in economic activities. Attitudes turned to caution, understanding, and cooperation.
(3) From decentralized operation to centralized monopoly. At the beginning of the credit reporting industry, a large number of enterprises and individuals flooded in, mixed with fish and dragons, and price competition was fierce. With the maturity of the market, the trend of oligarch concentration has become increasingly obvious since the 1960s. Imperial Data Bank (hereinafter referred to as Imperial) and Tokyo Merchants have occupied 60% -70% of the market share, and have maintained this trend to this day. It shows the long-term and stability of centralized monopoly. The reason for this is mainly due to its intellectual labor-intensive and data-accumulating industry characteristics, which require a large number of investigators and analysts, a nationwide network, and long-term data from a large number of enterprises.
(4) From manual operation to data integration. The development of technology has greatly promoted the credit reporting industry. The computer made the credit information company get rid of manual operations for data accumulation and calculation in the late 1960s, and then set up a database, and introduced the concept of mathematical analysis, integrated analysis of a large number of financial statements of the enterprise, and summed up the prediction of the company's repayment ability and bankruptcy. The risk assessment model has realized quantitative analysis, greatly improved the prediction accuracy, and improved the overall credibility of the industry.
(5) The service content is from single to diverse. Compared with the initial stage of providing simple credit information for enterprises, Japan Credit Information has now developed into a series of products, regularization, in-depth, high value-added, and transformed into a comprehensive information industry.
(6) From government funding to free operation. The century-old history of Imperial Entrepreneurship shows that the Japanese government has given certain support to the development of the industry in the early days, especially in terms of funding and assisting banks in conducting credit investigations. At present, Japan's credit information industry is on the right track, and traces of government involvement are hard to find. The positioning between the two is closer to the patron relationship. The government publicizes information free of charge to the outside world, and at the same time uses paid services of the industry, such as bankruptcy analysis, industry forecasting, etc. Regulations. In this regard, industry insiders in Japan stated that free operation is conducive to maintaining the fairness and independence of the credit investigation, ensuring the objectiveness and fairness of the investigation results, and thus promoting the long-term and healthy development of the industry.
(7) The government's disclosure of information is gradually opening up. The government's openness to its grasp of information is a key factor in determining the development of the credit reporting industry. From the perspective of expanding the right to know the society, the Japanese government gradually adopted an open approach to the information it holds. Especially after the implementation of the "Government Information Disclosure Law" in 2001, a large amount of information was freely disclosed to the public.
(8) Development of foreign capital from individual development to local capital cooperation. Faced with Japan's huge demand for credit, foreign companies represented by world giant D & B had planned to enter the Japanese market alone. However, given that the imperial and Tokyo commercial and industrial powers already have considerable strength, and that Japanese society also emphasizes interpersonal relationships, these factors forced Deng Zishi to abandon the original plan and eventually be forced to conduct indirect business with Japan by entrusting Tokyo commercial and industrial investigations.
(9) The development of the industry fluctuates along with the fluctuation of the economy. An analysis of the development of Japan's credit information industry reveals that it has grown or stagnated with the ups and downs of the economy. Especially when the economy is declining, its demand is on the contrary, which fully proves its lubricating function for economic activities, that is, when the metabolism of economic activities is active, the demand for it is greater; when it is stable, the demand is less.
On the whole, the credit information industry of Japanese enterprises has now entered a mature development track. Its integration with the economy as a whole is very close, and it plays an irreplaceable role in the market economy. However, subject to national conditions and other factors, it also has weak links: First, the desire for transnational operations is not strong; Second, the government information disclosure is not highly networked; Third, banks cannot provide external corporate credit notes, which is completely different from Western financial institutions Very different, weakening the role of banks in credit investigations.
2. The Enlightenment of Japanese Enterprise Credit Reporting System to China
China is currently in a period of market economy transformation, and the enterprise credit reporting system is still in its infancy: the entry barrier is low, there are many enterprises, and there is a lack of large companies with national investigation networks and strong strength; enterprises are not aware of risks through credit investigations. Strong; companies are more repulsive towards accepting credit investigations; government statistics and mandatory declaration systems are incomplete, external information disclosure is not high, and information disclosure methods are backward. These conditions have many similarities with the initial establishment of the Japanese corporate credit reporting system. By analyzing Japan, we can get many inspirations:
(1) The establishment of an enterprise credit reporting system is a long process and cannot be rushed. It needs to be considered in its entirety. Its industry positioning should be a special service industry, a culture and a culture of economic activity. The recognition and understanding of all parties in economic activities is the cornerstone of their development, so the cultivation of trustworthiness, credit consciousness, and credit consciousness will be very important.
(2) Adhere to the market-oriented approach. Japan is dominated by the people; and China ’s experience also shows that the country as the main body will lead to a lack of sense of responsibility and obligation due to unclear distribution of interests, as well as problems of independence, objectivity, and fairness. In addition, from the socio-economic level, the credit reporting industry is not completely similar to the economic support services such as law firms and accounting firms. Market-oriented business institutions have the essential power to maintain justice. At the same time, compared with the private sector, the government's responsibilities and functions are: to improve the government's information disclosure system, improve social integrity awareness, nurture credit information talents, formulate policies to promote the development of the credit information industry, and create a soft environment. In promoting the establishment of an enterprise credit reporting system, government departments must not engage in specific commercial credit reporting activities.
(3) A moderate support policy can be adopted for the credit reporting industry. The establishment of the enterprise credit reporting system is reflected in the microscopic view as the enterprise avoids credit risks and improves credit decision-making, and in the macroscopic way as the improvement of the national wealth, the reduction of losses, and the overall stability of the national economy. Therefore, the country should not draw on the front line of the overall development of the industry. If it is outside, it can learn from Japanese practices and adopt appropriate support strategies in terms of funds and policies from the perspective of accelerating the construction of the enterprise credit reporting system.
(4) It is necessary to take the path of proper concentration. The industry characteristics of the credit information industry are intensive intellectual resources and accumulated experience. An authoritative and credit-recognized enterprise must be supported by strong professionals, professional experience, data, and outlets. At present, Chinese enterprises are still in regional operation and decentralized operation, and have not yet embarked on the road of national operation and large-scale operation. The state can appropriately guide this and prompt the market to breed Deng Baishi of China as soon as possible.
(5) Reasonable consideration should be given to the matching of Chinese and foreign capital. Japan ’s experience shows that there are strong human factors behind the credit investigation. Confucian countries that are both Eastern restrained nations and value human relations may have a similar tendency: it is difficult to open their hearts to "outsiders", but a little open-minded to "sibs". At the same time, over-reliance on foreign capital will give foreign power the power to determine the credit fate of an enterprise. This also means to a certain extent: as a national enterprise complex, its credit evaluation rights will also fall into foreign countries. Therefore, we can consider forming a market structure in which we are the main and foreign capital is the supplement in the future.
3. Relevant suggestions
At present, the Party Central Committee and the State Council have made strategic arrangements to speed up the construction of the social credit system. To this end, they make the following recommendations.
(1) At the government level, the focus is on promotion. Consider formulating the "Government Information Disclosure Law" to ensure that the information held by government departments can be disclosed in a timely, comprehensive, and indiscriminate manner by legal means; consider improving the statistics and declaration contents of relevant national agencies; Strengthen information disclosure, improve disclosure methods, adopt online publication and inquiry as much as possible; promote industry associations such as conditional associations and chambers of commerce to participate in the construction of credit information system.
(2) At the credit reference company level, cultivation is the main focus. Encourage enterprises to improve the level of credit investigations, improve product structure, and increase the overall social awareness of credit reporting by regularly publishing bankruptcy information and other publications; attach importance to the introduction of foreign credit reporting companies, encourage Sino-foreign cooperation, and strengthen cooperation between both sides in capital, technology, and personnel . Consider setting up a special fund, on the basis of a thorough investigation of the entire industry, select a group of key companies with strong strength and high credibility, provide financial support for their equipment purchase, personnel training, database establishment, and guide them to strengthen and do Large, powerful alliances form a batch of credit investigation companies that the market can trust. Through the above-mentioned efforts, we strive to cultivate in the future a credit information enterprise system that is led by several large key companies, cooperated by a number of professional companies and some regional companies; domestically funded and foreign capital supplemented.
(3) At the market level, the focus is on popularization. Vigorously popularize credit knowledge, carry out integrity publicity and education throughout the society, promote honest and trustworthy social ethics, promote the necessity of credit investigation; conduct credit management knowledge training for large enterprises, and encourage enterprises to establish special credit review departments and credit management system.
(4) At the level of the surveyed party, the focus is on publicity. Promote the important role of credit reporting in the country's economic life, and promote the role of credit reporting to facilitate excellent companies to obtain preferential loans and expand business.