Create an enterprise credit system
"Business is not prosperous without sincerity, and business is difficult to prosper without credit." The necessity and urgency of building a social credit system has become increasingly evident with the deepening of my country's market economic reform. In this regard, we should explore the idea of establishing a corporate credit system in my country through the analysis of the development characteristics of the Japanese corporate credit system.
1. Characteristics of the development of Japanese corporate credit system
(1) The lubricant that is not recognized as indispensable to economic activity. The earliest corporate credit reporting company in Japan was Koshinko Co., Ltd., which was established in 1892. After more than 100 years of development, the credit information market in Japan has grown to a considerable scale, and credit information plays an important role in maintaining the normal operation of the national economy. The survey report of the credit reporting company has become an important indicator for enterprises to develop new customers and provide credit lines.
(2) The credit-reviewed enterprise changed from a negative attitude to understanding and cooperation. Enterprises are generally vigilant, rejecting and rejecting the early credit investigations, and many of them turn away investigators, insult and slander, showing the distrust of the society as a whole.
Today, companies have generally recognized their role in economic life as the rules of the game to participate in economic activities. The attitude changed to cautious vigilance, understanding and cooperation.
(3) From decentralized operation to centralized monopoly. At the beginning of the credit reporting industry, a large number of enterprises and individuals poured in, mixed with fish and dragons, and fierce price competition. With the maturity of the market, the trend of oligarchic concentration has become more and more obvious since the 1960s. Imperial Data Bank (hereinafter referred to as Imperial) and Tokyo Shoko have occupied 60%-70% of the market share, and have maintained this trend to this day. It shows the long-term and stable nature of centralized monopoly. The reasons for this are mainly due to its intellectual, labor-intensive, and data-experienced industry characteristics, that is, it requires a large number of investigators, analysts, a national network, and a large number of long-term information of enterprises, which is difficult for ordinary companies to overcome.
(4) From manual operation to data integration. The development of science and technology has greatly promoted the credit reporting industry. Computers enabled credit reporting companies to get rid of manual operations for data accumulation and calculation in the late 1960s. After that, they started to build databases, and introduced the concept of mathematical analysis to conduct integrated analysis on a large number of financial statements of enterprises, and concluded to predict the ability of repayment and bankruptcy of enterprises. The risk assessment model realizes quantitative analysis, which greatly improves the prediction accuracy and improves the overall credibility of the industry.
(5) The service content varies from single to diverse. Compared with the simple credit information of enterprises in the early stage of development, Japan's credit investigation has now developed into a series of products, regularization, in-depth and high value-added, and has transformed into a comprehensive information industry.
(6) From government funding to free operation. The century-old history of the empire's entrepreneurship shows that the Japanese government gave certain support to the development of the industry in the early stage, especially in terms of funding and assisting banks in conducting credit investigations. At present, the credit reporting industry in Japan is on the right track, and it is almost impossible to find traces of government involvement. The positioning between the two is closer to the customer relationship. The government discloses information for free to the outside world, and at the same time uses the services of the industry for a fee, such as bankruptcy analysis, industry forecasting, etc.; regulations. In this regard, industry insiders in Japan said that free operation is conducive to maintaining the fairness and independence of credit investigations, ensuring the objectivity and impartiality of investigation results, and thus promoting the long-term and healthy development of the industry.
(7) The government is gradually opening up the disclosure of information. The government's openness to the information it holds is a key factor in determining the development of the credit reporting industry. From the perspective of expanding the society's right to know, the Japanese government has gradually adopted an open approach to the information it holds. Especially after the implementation of the "Government Information Disclosure Law" in 2001, a large amount of information was released to the public for free.
(8) Foreign capital is developed independently to local capital cooperation. Facing the huge demand for credit information in Japan, foreign companies represented by the world giant D&B had planned to enter the Japanese market alone. However, given that the two powers of the Empire and Tokyo Shoko have considerable strength, and Japanese society emphasizes interpersonal relationships, these factors forced Deng Zishi to abandon the original plan, and was finally forced to conduct business with Japan indirectly by entrusting Tokyo Shoko for investigation.
(9) The development of the industry fluctuates with the fluctuation of the economy. By analyzing the development process of Japan's credit reporting industry, it can be found that it grows or stagnates with the ups and downs of the economy. Especially when the economy declines, its demand rises in the opposite direction, which fully proves its lubricating function for economic activities, that is, when the economic activity is metabolically active, the demand for it is large; when it is stable, the demand is less.
On the whole, the Japanese corporate credit reporting industry has entered a mature development track, and its integration with the overall economy is quite close, and it plays an irreplaceable role in the market economy. However, subject to national conditions and other factors, it also has weak links: first, the desire for transnational operations is not strong; second, the degree of government information disclosure is not networked; third, banks cannot provide external corporate credit notes, which is completely different from Western financial institutions. are very different, weakening the role of banks in credit investigations.
2. The Enlightenment of Japanese Enterprise Credit Information System to my country
my country is currently in the transitional period of the market economy, and the enterprise credit investigation system is still in its infancy: the entry threshold is low, there are many companies involved, and there is a lack of large companies with national investigation networks and strong strength; enterprises are not aware of risk avoidance through credit investigation methods. Strong; many enterprises have a repulsive attitude to accepting credit investigations; government statistics and mandatory reporting systems are imperfect, the degree of external information disclosure is not high, and the means of information disclosure are backward. There are many similarities between these situations and the early days of the establishment of the Japanese corporate credit system. By analyzing Japan, we can draw many inspirations:
(1) The establishment of an enterprise credit information system is a long process, which should not be rushed, but must be considered comprehensively. Its industry orientation should be a special service industry, which is a kind of culture, a kind of economic activity culture. The recognition and understanding of all parties in economic activities is the cornerstone of its development. Therefore, it is very important to cultivate the awareness of trustworthiness, credit reporting and being credited.
(2) Adhere to the idea of marketization. Japan is dominated by the people; while China's experience also shows that the state as the main body will lead to a lack of sense of responsibility and obligation due to unclear distribution of interests, as well as problems of independence, objectivity and impartiality. In addition, from the perspective of social economy, the credit reporting industry is not completely similar to the economic support service industry such as law firms and accounting firms. Market-oriented commercial institutions have the essential power to maintain fairness. At the same time, compared with the private sector, the government's responsibilities and functions lie in: improving the government information disclosure system, raising the awareness of social integrity, cultivating credit investigation talents, and formulating policies to promote the development of the credit investigation industry to lay a solid foundation and create a soft environment. In the process of promoting the establishment of an enterprise credit investigation system, government departments must not engage in specific commercial credit investigation activities.
(3) Appropriate support policies may be adopted for the credit reporting industry. The establishment of an enterprise credit reporting system is reflected in the microcosmic reflection of enterprises avoiding credit risks and improving credit decision-making, and in the macroscopically reflected in the improvement of national wealth, reduction of losses, and the pursuit of overall stability and balance of the national economy. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the country to draw a line on the development of the industry as a whole and stay out of it. It can learn from Japan's practice and adopt appropriate support strategies in terms of funds and policies from the perspective of accelerating the construction of an enterprise credit information system.
(4) Take the road of proper concentration. The credit information industry is characterized by its intellectual resource-intensive and experience-accumulating industry characteristics. An authoritative and domestically recognized credit reporting company must be supported by strong professionals, professional experience, data, and outlets. At present, Chinese enterprises are still operating in regional and decentralized operations, and have not yet embarked on the road of national operation and large-scale operation. The state can appropriately guide this to prompt the market to breed China's D&B as soon as possible.
(5) Reasonable consideration should be given to the combination of Chinese and foreign investment. Japan's experience shows that there are strong human factors behind the credit investigation. Confucian countries and China, which are both introverted ethnic groups in the East and attach great importance to human relations, may have a similar tendency: it is difficult to open their hearts to "outsiders", but they can be slightly open-minded to "compatriots". At the same time, excessive reliance on foreign capital will make the power to decide the fate of corporate credit be in the hands of foreign countries. This also means that, to a certain extent, the country, which is a national enterprise complex, will also have its credit assessment right in the pockets of foreign countries. Therefore, it can be considered to form a market structure in the future that is dominated by me and supplemented by foreign capital.
3. Relevant suggestions
At present, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council have made strategic arrangements to accelerate the construction of the social credit system, and the following suggestions are put forward for this purpose.
(1) At the government level, it is mainly to promote. Consider formulating the "Government Information Disclosure Law" to ensure that the information held by government departments can be disclosed in a timely, comprehensive and indiscriminate manner; consider improving the content of statistics and declarations of relevant state agencies; Information disclosure, improve disclosure methods, and try to use online publication and inquiry; promote qualified associations, chambers of commerce and other industry organizations to participate in the construction of the credit reporting system.
(2) At the credit reporting company level, cultivation is the main focus. Encourage enterprises to improve the level of credit investigation, improve product structure, and improve the overall social awareness of credit investigation through periodic publication of bankruptcy information and other publications; attach importance to the introduction of foreign credit investigation companies, encourage Sino-foreign cooperation, and strengthen cooperation in capital, technology, and personnel between the two parties . Consider setting up a special fund to select a group of key companies with strength and high credibility based on a thorough investigation of the entire industry, provide financial support for their equipment purchase, personnel training, and database establishment, and guide them to become stronger and better. Large and powerful alliances will form a group of credit investigation companies that the market can trust as soon as possible. Through the above-mentioned efforts, we will strive to cultivate a credit reporting enterprise system in the future, led by several large key companies, cooperating with several professional companies and some regional companies; domestic capital mainly and foreign capital supplemented.
(3) At the market level, the focus is on popularization. Vigorously popularize credit knowledge, carry out integrity publicity and education in the whole society, promote the social morality of honesty and trustworthiness, and publicize the necessity of credit investigation; conduct credit management knowledge training for large enterprises, and encourage enterprises to establish special credit review departments and credit management. system.
(4) At the level of the party under investigation, propaganda is the mainstay. Publicize the important role of credit reporting in national economic life, and publicize the role of credit reporting in facilitating excellent enterprises to obtain preferential loans and expand business.